Through history, there have always been contentious debates surrounding the idea of citizenship. The last 25 years have seen a rise in the public discussion of citizenship issues. The causes for more discussion include the quickening pace of globalization, a rise in the dissolution of the modern nation state, and shifting characteristics of capitalism.
The borders of the modern nation state, on which national citizens rely, are uncertain as a result of initiatives like the transnational legal systems, whose prevalence and consequent effects are ever-increasing (European Court of Justice, International Arbitration Law, etc.), the global labor market, and respect for universal human rights. Therefore, it appears that nation states are unable to exercise total sovereignty over the individuals who reside within their borders. The concept of a nation-state has changed as a result of the European Union. It is undoubtedly an organization outside of the nation state, despite not being a supranational body. The concepts of religion, sect, and country have a diminishing impact on citizenship in these types of continental organizations. The importance of economic and social theories is rising as the concept of citizenship is explained.
The prevalent notion of citizenship in the context of nation states is currently under attack from numerous new social and political ideas and practices. Along with the citizenship idea, other ideas have been considered, including nation, state, nation state, ethnicity, multiculturalism, identity, subidentity, and upper identity.
Following the establishment of the Republic, Turkey attempted to build a new type of citizenship known as active –republican- citizenship in literature. Globalization, however, has resulted in a shift from active citizenship to passive –liberal- citizenship.
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